Chronology of Spanish Contact with the Calusa

1513 Juan Ponce de León explores Southwest Florida coast
1521 Juan Ponce de León mortally wounded attempting to colonize Southwest Florida
1549 Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda shipwrecked at age 13 and captured by Calusa
1566 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés visits Calusa capital at Mound Key in February, rescuing Fontaneda and others; Fort San Antonio established there in October.
1567-1569 Jesuit missionaries work among Calusa
1569 Fort San Antonio and Jesuit mission withdrawn
1612 Juan Rodriquez de Cartaya visits Calusa capital as emissary of Florida governor
1614 Juan Rodriquez de Cartaya sent to retaliate against Calusa chief for attack on Spanish-allied Mocoso villages near Tampa Bay
1680 Christian Timucuan chief Don Thomas de Medina leads expedition to hostile Calusa frontier
1688 Son of Calusa chief visits Florida governor during visitation of Apalachee province
1689 Calusa chief visits Cuba requesting missionaries
1697 Franciscan friars attempt mission at Calusa capital
1704 Yamassee and Creek Indian slave raids begin to ravage South Florida Indians
1711 Calusa chief with 50 vassals and 220 other South Florida Indians request transport to Cuba and settle near Havana; disease kills most immigrants
1732 Attempted Cuban expedition to transport remaining Calusa by ship to Cuba
1743 Jesuit missionaries visit Calusa and other Indian refugees at present-day Miami
1757-1760 Creek Indian attacks prompt final evacuation of Indian refugees from Key West to Cuba

Credit Randell Research Center

This Chapter Indians of Pine Island
Next Page St. James City Calusa Shell Mounds
Next Chapter Early Inhabitants of Pine Island
Home Page